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From ABC-CLIO's History Hub website

Ancient Greece was the birthplace of several important thinkers whose contributions to philosophy and science still influence their respective fields today. This collection provides students with resources to study the ideas and works of Socrates, Aristotle, Plato, and Hippocrates. Use the Export to My Lists button above to turn this into a research list for your students.

Time Period Key Understandings

  • Geography impacts a civilization's ability to communicate and unify
  • Centralization allows for culture to flourish and disseminate
  • Oral history and tradition perpetuate cultural norms and religion
  • Societal celebrations and norms can glorify and support warfare
  • Political structure influences the economic stratification of a society
  • Democratic systems value the rights and opinions of citizens
  • Internal rivalry leads to competitive rather than collaborative systems
  • Art and architecture depict society's values and histories
  • Philosophy, or the love of wisdom, contributes to the betterment of society through academic research, reasoning, and discovery
  • Strong leadership leads to success of political and military campaigns
  • Cultural diffusion can lead to romanticism of past civilizations and culture

Key Questions

  • How did the needs of public life help define the structure and focus of education in ancient Greece?
  • How did Socrates encourage his students to seek the truth? Why was Socrates seen as a threat by some Athenians? How do Socrates's ideas continue to influence education today?
  • How did Aristotle challenge the ideas of his teacher, Plato? How did their approaches to attaining knowledge differ?
  • How did Greek philosophers make contributions to early science? Why were these contributions important even though their scientific ideas were often incorrect?


  1. Overview: Greek Philosophy and Science
  2. Outline: Outline
  3. Transcript: Transcript
  4. Lesson: Introduction
  5. Lesson: 1-Greek Philosophy and Education
  6. Lesson: 2-Socrates
  7. Lesson: 3-Plato
  8. Lesson: 4-Aristotle
  9. Lesson: Closing
  10. Photos & Illustrations: Greek medicine: relief of doctor examining boy
  11. Reference Articles: Greek Medicine
  12. Reference Articles: Greek Philosophy
  13. Biographies: Aristotle
  14. Biographies: Plato
  15. Biographies: Socrates
  16. Cultural Documents: Hippocrates: Case Studies
  17. Cultural Documents: Hippocratic Oath


Select Citation Style: 
MLA Citation
"Greek Philosophy and Science." History Hub, ABC-CLIO, 2020, Accessed 28 Feb. 2020.
Chicago Citation
"Greek Philosophy and Science." In History Hub, ABC-CLIO, 2020. Accessed February 28, 2020.
APA Citation
Greek Philosophy and Science. (2020). In History Hub. Retrieved from
Entry ID: 2158360