Diplomacy and Conflict • Cold War Leadership
The result of the Helsinki Conference (held in Helsinki, Finland from July 30 to August 1, 1975), the Helsinki Agreements set a standard for behavior among European nations regarding human rights and respect for national sovereignty. Although the accords had no force behind them, they were considered an important statement in defense of European stability. More than 30 European countries, as well as Canada and the United States, signed the accords. Below is an excerpt.
VI. NON-INTERVENTION IN INTERNAL AFFAIRS
The participating States will refrain from any intervention, direct or indirect, individual or collective, in the internal or external affairs falling within the domestic jurisdiction of another participating State, regardless of their mutual relations.
They will accordingly refrain from any form of armed intervention or threat of such intervention against another participating State.
They will likewise in all circumstances refrain from any other act of military, or of political, economic or other coercion designed to subordinate to their own interest the exercise by another participating State of the rights inherent in its sovereignty and thus to secure advantages of any kind.
Accordingly, they will, inter alia, refrain from direct or indirect assistance to terrorist activities, or to subversive or other activities directed towards the violent overthrow of the regime of another participating State.
VII. RESPECT FOR HUMAN RIGHTS AND FUNDAMENTAL FREEDOMS INCLUDING THE FREEDOM OF THOUGHT, CONSCIENCE, RELIGION OR BELIEF
The participating States will respect human rights and fundamental freedoms, including the freedom of thought, conscience, religion or belief, for all without distinction as to race, sex, language or religion.
They will promote and encourage the effective exercise of civil, political, economic, social, cultural and other rights and freedoms all of which derive from the inherent dignity of the human person and are essential for his free and full development.
Within this framework the participating States will recognize and respect the freedom of the individual to profess and practice, alone or in community with others, religion or belief acting in accordance with the dictates of his own conscience.
The participating States on whose territory national minorities exist will respect the right of persons belonging to such minorities to equality before the law, will afford them the full opportunity for the actual enjoyment of human rights and fundamental freedoms and will, in this manner, protect their legitimate interests in this sphere.
The participating States recognize the universal significance of human rights and fundamental freedoms, respect for which is an essential factor for the peace, justice and well-being necessary to ensure the development of friendly relations and cooperation among themselves as among all States.
They will constantly respect these rights and freedoms in their mutual relations and will endeavor jointly and separately, including in cooperation with the United Nations, to promote universal and effective respect for them.
They confirm the right of the individual to know and act upon his rights and duties in this field.
In the field of human rights and fundamental freedoms, the participating States will act in conformity with the purposes and principles of the Charter of the United Nations and with the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. They will also fulfill their obligations as set forth in the international declarations and agreements in this field, including inter alia the International Covenants on Human Rights, by which they may be bound.
VIII. EQUAL RIGHTS AND SELF-DETERMINATION OF PEOPLES
The participating States will respect the equal rights of peoples and their right to self-determination, acting at all times in conformity with the purposes and principles of the Charter of the United Nations and with the relevant norms of international law, including those relating to territorial integrity of States.
By virtue of the principle of equal rights and self-determination of peoples, all peoples always have the right, in full freedom, to determine, when and as they wish, their internal and external political status, without external interference, and to pursue as they wish their political, economic, social and cultural development.
The participating States reaffirm the universal significance of respect for and effective exercise of equal rights and self-determination of peoples for the development of friendly relations among themselves as among all States; they also recall the importance of the elimination of any form of violation of this principle. . . .
Cooperation in Humanitarian and Other Fields
The participating States,
Desiring to contribute to the strengthening of peace and understanding among peoples and to the spiritual enrichment of the human personality without distinction as to race, sex, language or religion,
Conscious that increased cultural and educational exchanges, broader dissemination of information, contacts between people, and the solution of humanitarian problems will contribute to the attainment of these aims,
Determined therefore to cooperate among themselves, irrespective of their political, economic and social systems, in order to create better conditions in the above fields, to develop and strengthen existing forms of cooperation and to work out new ways and means appropriate to these aims,
Convinced that this cooperation should take place in full respect for the principles guiding relations among participating States as set forth in the relevant document,
Have adopted the following:
1. HUMAN CONTACTS
The participating States,
Considering the development of contacts to be an important element in the strengthening of friendly relations and trust among peoples,
Affirming, in relation to their present effort to improve conditions in this area, the importance they attach to humanitarian considerations,
Desiring in this spirit to develop, with the continuance of détente, further efforts to achieve continuing progress in this field
And conscious that the questions relevant hereto must be settled by the States concerned under mutually acceptable conditions,
Make it their aim to facilitate freer movement and contacts, individually and collectively, whether privately or officially, among persons, institutions and organizations of the participating States, and to contribute to the solution of the humanitarian problems that arise in that connection,
Declare their readiness to these ends to take measures which they consider appropriate and to conclude agreements or arrangements among themselves, as may be needed, and
Express their intention now to proceed to the implementation of the following:
(A) CONTACTS AND REGULAR MEETINGS ON THE BASIS OF FAMILY TIES
In order to promote further development of contacts on the basis of family ties the participating States will favorably consider applications for travel with the purpose of allowing persons to enter or leave their territory temporarily, and on a regular basis if desired, in order to visit members of their families.
Applications for temporary visits to meet members of their families will be dealt with without distinction as to the country of origin or destination: existing requirements for travel documents and visas will be applied in this spirit. The preparation and issue of such documents and visas will be effected within reasonable time limits; cases of urgent necessity—such as serious illness or death—will be given priority treatment. They will take such steps as may be necessary to ensure that the fees for official travel documents and visas are acceptable.
They confirm that the presentation of an application concerning contacts on the basis of family ties will not modify the rights and obligations of the applicant or of members of his family.
(B) REUNIFICATION OF FAMILIES
The participating States will deal in a positive and humanitarian spirit with the applications of persons who wish to be reunited with members of their family, with special attention being given to requests of an urgent character—such as requests submitted by persons who are ill or old.
They will deal with applications in this field as expeditiously as possible.
They will lower where necessary the fees charged in connection with these applications to ensure that they are at a moderate level.
Applications for the purpose of family reunification which are not granted may be renewed at the appropriate level and will be reconsidered at reasonably short intervals by the authorities of the country of residence or destination, whichever is concerned; under such circumstances fees will be charged only when applications are granted.
Persons whose applications for family reunification are granted may bring with them or ship their household and personal effects; to this end the participating States will use all possibilities provided by existing regulations.
Until members of the same family are reunited, meetings and contacts between them may take place in accordance with the modalities for contacts on the basis of family ties.
The participating States will support the efforts of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies concerned with the problems of family reunification.
They confirm that the presentation of an application concerning family reunification will not modify the rights and obligations of the applicant or of members of his family.
The receiving participating State will take appropriate care with regard to employment for persons from other participating States who take up permanent residence in that State in connection with family reunification with its citizens and see that they are afforded opportunities equal to those enjoyed by its own citizens for education, medical assistance and social security.
(C) MARRIAGE BETWEEN CITIZENS OF DIFFERENT STATES
The participating States will examine favorably and on the basis of humanitarian considerations requests for exit or entry permits from persons who have decided to marry a citizen from another participating State.
The processing and issuing of the documents required for the above purposes and for the marriage will be in accordance with the provisions accepted for family reunification.
In dealing with requests from couples from different participating States, once married, to enable them and the minor children of their marriage to transfer their permanent residence to a State in which either one is normally a resident, the participating States will also apply the provisions accepted for family reunification.
(D) TRAVEL FOR PERSONAL OR PROFESSIONAL REASONS
The participating States intend to facilitate wider travel by their citizens for personal or professional reasons and to this end they intend in particular:
* gradually to simplify and to administer flexibly the procedures for exit and entry;
* to ease regulations concerning movement of citizens from the other participating States in their territory, with due regard to security requirements.
They will endeavor gradually to lower, where necessary, the fees for visas and official travel documents.
They intend to consider, as necessary, means—including, in so far as appropriate, the conclusion of multilateral or bilateral consular conventions or other relevant agreements or understandings—for the improvement of arrangements to provide consular assistance.
They confirm that religious faiths, institutions and organizations, practicing within the constitutional framework of the participating States, and their representatives can, in the field of their activities, have contacts and meetings among themselves and exchange information.
(E) IMPROVEMENT OF CONDITIONS FOR TOURISM ON AN INDIVIDUAL OR COLLECTIVE BASIS
The participating States consider that tourism contributes to a fuller knowledge of the life, culture and history of other countries, to the growth of understanding among peoples, to the improvement of contacts and to the broader use of leisure. They intend to promote the development of tourism, on an individual or collective basis, and, in particular, they intend:
* to promote visits to their respective countries by encouraging the provision of appropriate facilities and the simplification and expediting of necessary formalities relating to such visits;
* to increase, on the basis of appropriate agreements or arrangements where necessary, cooperation in the development of tourism, in particular by considering bilaterally possible ways to increase information relating to travel to other countries and to the reception and service of tourists, and other related questions of mutual interest.
(F) MEETINGS AMONG YOUNG PEOPLE
The participating States intend to further the development of contacts and exchanges among young people by encouraging:
* increased exchanges and contacts on a short or long term basis among young people working, training or undergoing education through bilateral or multilateral agreements or regular programs m all cases where it is possible;
* study by their youth organizations of the question of possible agreements relating to frameworks of multilateral youth cooperation;
* agreements or regular programs relating to the organization of exchanges of students, of international youth seminars, of courses of professional training and foreign language study;
* the further development of youth tourism and the provision to this end of appropriate facilities;
* the development, where possible, of exchanges, contacts and cooperation on a bilateral or multilateral basis between their organizations which represent wide circles of young people working, training or undergoing education;
* awareness among youth of the importance of developing mutual understanding and of strengthening friendly relations and confidence among peoples.
In order to expand existing links and cooperation in the field of sport that participating States will encourage contacts and exchanges of this kind, including spores meetings and competitions of all sorts, on the basis of the established international rules, regulations and practice.
(H) EXPANSION OF CONTACTS
By way of further developing contacts among governmental institutions and non-governmental organizations and associations, including women's organizations, the participating States will facilitate the convening of meetings as well as travel by delegations, groups and individuals.
The participating States,
Conscious of the need for an ever wider knowledge and understanding of the various aspects of life in ocher participating States,
Acknowledging the contribution of this process to the growth of confidence between peoples,
Desiring, with the development of mutual understanding between the participating States and with the further improvement of their relations, to continue further efforts coward progress in this field,
Recognizing the importance of the dissemination of information from the ocher participating States and of a better acquaintance with such information,
Emphasizing therefore the essential and influential role of the press, radio, television, cinema and news agencies and of the journalists working in these fields,
Make it their aim to facilitate the freer and wider dissemination of information of all kinds, to encourage cooperation in the field of information and the exchange of information with ocher countries, and to improve the conditions under which journalists from one participating State exercise their profession in another participating State, and
Express their intention in particular:
(A) IMPROVEMENT OF THE CIRCULATION OF, ACCESS TO, AND EXCHANGE OF INFORMATION
(i) Oral Infonnation
* To facilitate the dissemination of oral information through the encouragement of lectures and lecture tours by personalities and specialists from the other participating States, as well as exchanges of opinions at round table meetings, seminars, symposia, summer schools, congresses and other bilateral and multilateral meetings.
(ii) Printed Information
* To facilitate the improvement of the dissemination, on their territory, of newspapers and printed publications, periodical and non-periodical, from the other participating States. For this purpose: they will encourage their competent firms and organizations to conclude agreements and contracts designed gradually to increase the quantities and the number of titles of newspapers and publications imported from the other participating States. These agreements and contracts should in particular mention the speediest conditions of delivery and the use of the normal channels existing in each country for the distribution of its own publications and newspapers, as well as forms and means of payment agreed between the parties making it possible to achieve the objectives aimed at by these agreements and contracts; where necessary, they will take appropriate measures to achieve the above objectives and to implement the provisions contained in the agreements and contracts.
* To contribute to the improvement of access by the public to periodical and non-periodical printed publications imported on the bases indicated above. In particular: they will encourage an increase in the number of places where these publications are on sale; they will facilitate the availability of these periodical publications during congresses, conferences, official visits and other international events and to tourists during the season; they will develop the possibilities for taking out subscriptions according to the modalities particular to each country; they will improve the opportunities for reading and borrowing these publications in large public libraries and their reading rooms as well as in university libraries.
They intend to improve the possibilities for acquaintance with bulletins of official information issued by diplomatic missions and distributed by those missions on the basis of arrangements acceptable to the interested parties.
(iii) Filmed and Broadcast Information
* To promote the improvement of the dissemination of filmed and broadcast information. To this end: they will encourage the wider showing and broadcasting of a greater variety of recorded and filmed information from the other participating States, illustrating the various aspects of life in their countries and received on the basis of such agreements or arrangements as may be necessary between the organizations and firms directly concerned; they will facilitate the import by competent organizations and firms of recorded audio-visual material from the other participating States.
The participating States note the expansion in the dissemination of information broadcast by radio, and express the hope for the continuation of this process, so as to meet the interest of mutual understanding among peoples and the aims set forth by this Conference.
(B) COOPERATION IN THE FIELD OF INFORMATION
* To encourage cooperation in the field of information on the basis of short or long term agreements or arrangements. In particular: they will favor increased cooperation among mass media organizations, including press agencies, as well as among publishing houses and organizations; they will favor cooperation among public or private, national or international radio and television organizations, in particular through the exchange of both live and recorded radio and television programs, and through the joint production and the broadcasting and distribution of such programs; they will encourage meetings and contacts both between journalists' organizations and between journalists from the participating States; they will view favorably the possibilities of arrangements between periodical publications as well as between newspapers from the participating States, for the purpose of exchanging and publishing articles; they will encourage the exchange of technical information as well as the organization of joint research and meetings devoted to the exchange of experience and views between experts in the field of the press, radio and television.
(C) IMPROVEMENT OF WORKING CONDITIONS FOR JOURNALISTS
The participating States, desiring to improve the conditions under which journalists from one participating State exercise their profession in another participating State, intend in particular to: examine in a favorable spirit and within a suitable and reasonable time scale requests from journalists for visas;
* grant to permanently accredited journalists of the participating States, on the basis of arrangements, multiple entry and exit visas for specified periods;
* facilitate the issue to accredited journalists of the participating States of permits for stay in their country of temporary residence and, if and when these are necessary, of other official papers which it is appropriate for them to have;
* ease, on a basis of reciprocity, procedures for arranging travel by journalists of the participating States in the country where they are exercising their profession, and to provide progressively greater opportunities for such travel, subject to the observance of regulations relating to the existence of areas closed for security reasons;
* ensure that requests by such journalists for such travel receive, in so far as possible, an expeditious response, taking into account the time scale of the request;
* increase the opportunities for journalists of the participating States to communicate personally with their sources, including organizations and official institutions;
* grant to journalists of the participating States the right to import, subject only to its being taken out again, the technical equipment (photographic, cinematographic, tape recorder, radio and television) necessary for the exercise of their profession, (While recognizing appropriate local personnel are employed by foreign journalists in many instances, the participating States note that the above provisions would be applied, subject to the observance of the appropriate rules, to persons from the other participating States, who are regularly and professionally engaged as technicians, photographers or cameramen of the press, radio, television or cinema.)
* enable journalists of the other participating States, whether permanently or temporarily accredited, to transmit completely, normally and rapidly by means recognized by the participating States to the information organs which they represent, the results of their professional activity, including tape recordings and undeveloped film, for the purpose of publication or of broadcasting on the radio or television.
"Helsinki Agreements (1975)." World History: The Modern Era, ABC-CLIO, 2019, worldhistory.abc-clio.com/Search/Display/308944. Accessed 25 Aug. 2019.
Entry ID: 2155829